For over 13 years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been running a global rapid loss assessment service called PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response ), that makes use of ShakeMap . ShakeMap provides an estimate of ground shaking in the area struck by an earthquake. An earthquake with a specific magnitude, location and depth will produce a range of ground shaking levels at sites throughout the region depending on distance from the earthquake, the local site conditions, and variations in the propagation of seismic waves from the earthquake, due to complexities in the structure of the Earth's crust. Ground shaking levels can be represented through macroseismic intensity, which is a description of the effect of the earthquake on people and structures (e.g., ), or through measured shaking parameters, such as the peak acceleration of the ground recorded by an accelerograph. Following an earthquake, data on the ground shaking from both observations of macroseismic intensity and recordings from seismic instruments are automatically processed and distributed via dedicated software and web services, without the need for any human intervention. These data are combined with empirical ground motion models (applied to the areas without any data), to produce maps of likely ground shaking. The accuracy of the resulting ShakeMap will depends on the density of the observations and on the faithful-ness of the ground motions model(s) to represent the ground motion where no observations are present.
Within RISE, a European ShakeMap service prototype using the latest version of ShakeMap (v4, ) has been set up under the management and mainte-nance of both ETH Zurich and the National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology in Italy (INGV) (Fig 1). A number of web services produced by EMSC (the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre) and ORFEUS (Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology) are used by the European ShakeMap system to automatically register when an earthquake above magnitude 4 occurs within Europe, and to receive any recorded strong motion data. The European ShakeMap system is fully consistent with the data and modelling protocols used in the na-tional services for Italy and Switzerland (and also therefore could serve as a backup for these national installations), and there are plans to expand this harmonisation to other European countries. Future developments will include the inclusion of crowdsourced felt data, being collected by web services developed by EMSC, as this can be correlated with macro-seismic intensity (Fig 2).